The acceptance of the public infrastructure by users is still low. Possible reasons for this are the modest spread of electric cars and the lack of the ability to do a quick charge at public charging stations.
A list of requirements for an automated parking/charging system for pedelecs was produced and possible approaches examined, including alternative methods for grasping and positioning.
For better utilisation of the vehicles in the municipal fleet increased centralisation in larger vehicle pools is advisable. The vehicles were generally well accepted by the employees. The cars used each travelled on average 990 km per month, scooters 165 km, pedelecs 70 km and Segways 93 km. Range appears to hardly present any problem in Ludwigsburg, as proved by residual charge levels of sometimes well over 60 %. There are differences in the quality of the vehicles and in servicing. Although the project tended to use high-priced vehicles, nearly all scooters needed some attention or repairs in the course of the project.
The attempt at integrating a relatively large number of charging stations into a multi-storey car park showed that the installation costs of individual charging stations increase appreciably if the connection work for numerous stations has to be done locally. On average, installation costs emerge of up to € 4,000 per normal charging station and € 10,000 per fast charging station.